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Chronology of Ancient Nubia - by Richard Lobban

Notes: Early dates are very approximate and vary by location.

Abbreviations: BP Before the Present, very rough dates.

BCE Before the Common Era, former Before Christ (BC)

CE Common Era former Anno Domini (AD)

3-1.5 Million BP Australopithecus africanus and Homo habilis fossils found in neighboring Ethiopia, Kenya, and Chad. Thus it is most likely they ranged in the Sudanese savanna in Late Pliocene or Early Pleistocene periods.

750,000 BP Homo erectus established in Africa and Asia in later Pleistocene.

250,000-100,000 BP Lower Paleolithic (Chellean tradition), especially at Khor Abu Anga (near Omdurman); bifacial handaxes, few flake tools

100-50,000 BP Homo sapiens neandertalensis (Late Pleistocene Acheulian tradition) established in Africa.

50,000 BP Homo sapiens sapiens (“Bushman”) in Nile valley

50-30,000 BP Middle Paleolithic, Mousterian industries, denticulate tools, flaking techniques

30-10,000 BP Sahara still has extensive grasslands.

20,000 BP Some semi-sedentary populations established on Nile and nomadic groups in adjoining savanna.

30-9,000 BP Upper Paleolithic Era in the Sudan; Levallois tradition gradually transforms toMesolithic. Advanced hunting and collecting of Stillbay culture represented by the Singa skull from the Blue Nile. This is the oldest hominid fossil presently known for Sudan.

8,000 BP Very late Upper Paleolithic; Sebilian III tool types. Domestic cattle in Nile valley.

7000-4500 BCE Mesolithic to Early Neolithic Period, gradual expansion of microliths, arrow heads, harpoon heads, and pebble tools for these hunting and fishing peoples. Perhaps there is some increase of settled population sites in the “Khartoum Mesolithic”. Contemporary Abkan, Qadan, Kulb, and Dakki sites are known in Lower Nubia with rock drawings of wild animals, also at the Shaqadud site in Butana. All have traditions of decorated, but unpolished wavy-line pottery. This is one of the oldest pottery types in Africa and can be linked to Saharan populations as far as the Fayum and Tibesti plateau. Wetter climate and much higher Nile floods.

4500-3500 BCE Early to Middle Neolithic, as in Kadero, Kadada, and Esh-Shaheinab sites, pastoralism; domestic of the pygmy goat, some riverine agriculture, shell beads, groovers, flakes, borers, oared boats; elaboration of the "wavy-line" pottery with impressed dots and zig-zags. Bone for hooks and harpoons. Black and red polished bowls. Improved hunting of megafauna. Ancestors of Beja peoples established in Red Sea Hills.

3250 BCE Late Neolithic. "Classic" A-horizon, Batn al Hajr, Buhen and Afyeh sites, contemporary with Badarian and Nagadan peoples in Pre-dynastic Egypt. Characteristic black and red polished “egg-shell” and ovoid pottery sometimes with a ripple finish, sometimes painted. Cultural and economic contact with predynastic Egypt, especially in Lower Nubia.



DYNASTIC TIMES IN NUBIA AND EGYPT

3100 BCE Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Pharaoh Menes and the dynastic order of the Old Kingdom. The conquest inscription of Pharaoh Djer at Sheikh Suliman in Nubia. Egyptian occupation and raiding against the Ta-Seti in Sudanese Nubia; border fort at Buhen. Hieroglyphics and huge pyramids introduced.

3070 BCE "Terminal" A-Horizon in lower Nubia. Copper reaches Nubia

2700 BCE Senefru (Dyn. IV) seizes 200,000 cattle and 7,000 slaves in raids on Nubia, thus beginning a period of hostile Egypto-Nubian relations.
2700-2100 BCE Period of supposed B-Group in Nubia, which is likely a decadent A-Group. Old Kingdom and First Intermediate trade expeditions to Wawat, Irtet, Setjiu and Yam in Nubia.
2500 BCE Atbai pottery tradition in Gash/Kassala area.
2500-2100 BCE Rise of C-Horizon and relative decline of Egyptian influence in the Sudan during Egypt's First Intermediate Period. Characteristic shiny black pottery with geometric designs. Fame for cattle rearing. Early small states in Nubia such as Zetjau, Medjay, Irtet, and Yam. C-Horizon sites at Amada, Aniba, and Debeiri.


RISE OF KERMA

2250-2050 BCE Rise of Kerma before First Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties VII-X).

2050-1795 BCE Reunification of Egypt by Pharaoh Mentuhotep II; start of the Middle Kingdom (Dynasties XI-XII); major forts and temples at Faras, Aksha, Semna, and Buhen. Resumption of Egyptian attacks against Nubia

1900-1575 BCE Further expansion of Kerma Culture during Egypt's Middle Kingdom; beaker pottery with red polish; huge tumulus burials for Kerma kings with sacrificial burials; massive brick 'defuffa' buildings.

1887-1850 BCE Pharaoh Sesostris III has extensive raiding, trading and fort network in Nubia.

1786-1567 BCE Second Intermediate Period in Egypt (Dynasties XIII-XVII; Hyksos (Asian Semites) invade Egypt; horses and bronze swords introduced; Return of Nubian autonomy; Hyksos seek Nubian allies against Egyptian Kamose's effort to reunify the Nile. Lower Egyptian royalty flee to Nubia. End of the "First Empire" state of Kush.Introduction of the horse and war chariots to the Nile valley.



COLONIZATION OF NUBIA BY NEW KINGDOM EGYPTIANS

1570-1090 BCE Kerma is destroyed by Egyptian New Kingdom Pharaohs who rule the northern Sudan reaching the 4th cataract; Numerous forts, temples and towns built. Shaduf (keeyay) water-bucket irrigation technology introduced. The "Viceroy of Kush" becomes an established position that governs Lower Nubia (Wawat) and Upper Nubia (Kush)

1570-1546 BCE Reign of Ahmose I in Egypt; Nubian campaigns and the appointment of an Egyptian as the "Viceroy of Kush".

1546-1526 BCE Reign of Amenhotep I; Thuwre appointed Viceroy of Wawat and Kush

1530 BCE War against Kush by Pharaoh Thutmosis I; goal to seize gold, livestock, and slave soldiers

1515-1484 BCE Reign of Queen Hatshepsut who builds temples in Nubia and conducts one raid.

1490-1436 BCE Pharaoh Thutmosis III has repeated military expeditions against Nubia past the 3rd cataract; Major temple erected at Semna. Principle goals: slaves, gold, cattle, and ivory

1410 BCE Joshua at the battle of Jericho

1403-1365 BCE Reign of Amenhotep III; builder of temple at Solb

1375 BCE Nubian revolt against Amenhotep III

1361-1352 BCE Reign of Tutankhamun; Huy appointed Viceroy of Kush; Huy responsible gold production and tribute from Wawat and Kush.

1298-1232 BCE Reign of Ramses II; manorial occupation of northern Sudan up to the 4th cataract. Temples at Abu Simbel, Amara West, and Aksha. Setau appointed Viceroy of Kush.

1287 BCE Nubian revolt against Egypt.

1069-715 BC Third Intermediate Period in Egypt. (Dynasties XXI-XXIV), rival dynasties in EgyptTanite (XXI dynasty, 1069-945 BC) established in Delta; later replaced by another dynasty at Bubastis. Herihor serves as Viceroy of Kush under Ramses XI. As Dynasty XX closes Herihor (ca. 1060 BC) becomes High Priest of Amun and his son Piankhi becomes the Viceroy of Nubia.

1000-960 BCE Reign of King David of Israel

1000-750 BCE Period of Phoenician trading prosperity

970 BCE Salvage of royal Egyptian mummies to secret cache at Deir al Bahri.

960-931 BCE Reign of King Solomon of Israel



KINGDOM OF KUSH EMERGES AT NAPATA

ca. 950 BCE Kushites under Aserkhamen (?) start attacks on Egypt in attempt to expand northward.

945-715 BCE Reign of Dynasty XXII; Delta rivalries

ca. 850 BCE Napatan kings and queens begin burials at Kurru.

825-730 BCE Age of Euboean Expansion and Regional Colonization

818-715 BCE Reign of Dynasty XXIII; Delta rivalries

ca. 800 BCE Kush expands northward with a weak and divided Egypt, Piankhy claims Thebes as province of Kush. Projected as a man of honor, a horse-fancier, and a "deliverer" from disunity, he responds to the pleas from Delta princes to reunify the Nile and defeat Osorkon IV of Dyn. XXII.

790-760 BCE Reign of Kushite Pharaoh Alara, probable founder of Dynasty XXV, starting the "Late Period in Egypt and the reunification of the Nile valley.

765 BCE Piankhy completes conquest of Egypt.



KUSHITE RULE OF ALL OF EGYPT AS DYNASTY XXV

760-656 BCE Reunification of Egypt under the Kushitic "Ethiopian" Dynasty XXV.

760-747 BCE Reign of Kushite Pharaoh Kashta. Kashta drove Osorkon IV (Dyn. XXII) back into the Egyptian Delta. Kashta was buried at Kurru not Thebes

750-700 BCE Phoenician alphabet arrives in Greece.

747-716 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Piankhy , son of Kashta. Piankhy controls all of Egypt and uses siege tactics against the Assyrians.

ca. 730 BCE Piankhy fights Tefnakht (Dyn. XXIV) in the Delta and halts Tefnakht’s drive to the south.

ca. 730 BCE Piankhy erects stela.

744-612 BCE Height of Assyrian power.

716 BCE Death of Piankhy; he is buried at Kurru.

716-701 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Shabaka, (younger brother of Piankhy); Shabaka is noted in the Old Testament, Genesis 10(7); It was also noted that Isaiah, King of Israel gave gifts to Shabaka, who had supported these Palestinians at Al-Taku in their fight against the Assyrians under Sennacherib. In order to divert the Assyrians, Shabaka stimulated revolts in the Levant. Later, in 701, when expecting battle with Sennacherib in the Delta, he is saved when the Assyrians withdraw because of a plague epidemic among their troops. Shabaka ruled mainly from Thebes and is buried at Kurru.

701-690 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Shabataka (Shebitqu). Shabataka is also noted in the Torah (Old Testament), Genesis 10(7); He is buried at Kurru.

690-664 BCE Pharaoh Taharka, (younger brother of Shabataka). As Crown Prince Taharka joined forces of Hezekiah of Judea (Israel) in their joint struggle against the Assyrians then led by Sennacherib (704-681 BC). Ruling from Memphis and Thebes he continually fought to protect the Nile valley from the Assyrians led by Esarhaddon (680-669), the son and successor of Sennacherib. Taharka also sought the restoration of Pharaonic authority, religion and architecture; grandson of Kashta.

ca. 690 BCE Coronation of Taharka at Memphis; Taharka adds to the temple at Jebel Barkal.

680-669 BCE Camels introduced to Egypt by Assyrian King Esarhaddon. Later camels became critical in trans-Saharan trade. In order to distract Esarhaddon away from the Nile, Taharka stimulated revolts at Sidon and Tyre in Phoenicia. These revolts were crushed and provoked Esarhaddon to strike at Taharka at Tanis and Memphis.

671 BCE Esarhaddon speeds across Sinai with his camel cavalry and meets the Nubian and Egyptian forces of Taharka in the eastern Delta; Taharka is defeated and withdraws from Tanis and retreats to Memphis citadel.

670 BCE Taharka retakes the Delta from the Assyrians

669 BCE Assyrians under Esarhaddon siege and sack Memphis; son of Taharka captured and taken to Assyria; Taharka resumes tactical support of Phoenicians

668 BCE Esarhaddon plans return conquest, but dies on route back to Egypt. Ashurbanipal, (668-627) son of Esarhaddon resumes revenge campaign and badly defeats Taharka in the Delta, and sacks Memphis.

667 BCE Taharka withdraws from Egypt to Napata; Delta princes call for Taharka to return to fight the Assyrians, but he does not respond.

664 BCE Taharka dies and is buried at Kurru pyramid field. Rise of Dyn XXVI in Egypt (664-525 BCE).

664-653 BCE Reign of Pharaoh Tanutamun (Tanwetamani), nephew of Taharka.

664 BCE Tanutamun briefly regains control of Memphis and the entire Nile valley, but with weak support from the Delta princes under Assyrian pressure and with rival claims to rule Lower Egypt by Psammetichos I (664-610 BC), he withdraws to Thebes.

661 BCE Tanutamun defeated in Memphis and driven from Thebes that is sacked by Ashurbanipal.

656-590 BCE Kushite withdrawal back to the Sudan, with the continued survival of the worship of Amun at Jebel Barkal/Napata.

653 BCE Death of Tanutamun; the last to be buried at Kurru

653-643 BCE Reign of Atlanersa

643-623 BCE Reign of Senkamanisken (father of Aspelta and Anlamani); Buried at Nuri

625 BCE Naucratis established in Delta for Greek traders.

623-593 BCE Reign of Anlamani. Campaigns against the Blemmyes in the Eastern desert. Anlamani was crowned at Kawa, and was buried at Nuri

593-568 BCE Reign of Aspelta who plans attack against Necho II in Egypt; Aspelta is buried at Nuri.

591 BCE Aspelta defeated in attempt to reclaim Egypt from the Saite XXVIth Dynasty. The border of Kush established at 2nd cataract.

590 BCE Psammetichos II (595-589, Dyn XXVI) invades Nubia to 3rd cataract, and fought at the northern plain of Dongola seizing 4,200 captives. He also hacked out inscriptions to pharaohs of the XXVth Dynasty, and his soldiers placed inscriptions at Abu Simbel. He may have sacked Napata and probably stimulated the gradual of Kush's capital from Napata to Meroë.



KINGDOM OF KUSH AT NAPATA

590 BC - 350 AD Rise and gradual decline of Kush at Meroë. Famed for notable iron-production technology; Kings of Kush still proclaimed as "Lords of Two Lands".
588 BCE Judean revolt against Babylon.

586 BCE Babylonian repression against Judea.

581 BCE Exile of Jews from Jerusalem.

570-526 BCE Amasis rules Egypt.

568-555 BCE Reign of King Aramatelqo



PERSIANS ENTER NILE VALLEY

539 BC Jews return to Jerusalem.

530 BC Death of Cyrus.

ca.529-521 BC Reign of Persian King Cambyses in Egypt

525-398 BC Persian Dynasty XXVII

524 BC Cambyses campaigns in Nubia, but is driven out

487-485 BC Revolt in Upper Egypt.

486 BC Death of Darius, Xerxes comes to power.

462-454 BC Revolt in Egypt against the Persians. Romans give support to Egyptians.

430 BC Herodotus reaches Aswan.

429 BC Death of Pericles

404-369 Reign of Kushite King Harsiyotef; fought against Blemmyes in eastern desert. Buried at Nuri

399 BC Trial and Execution of Socrates.

360-342 BC Reign of last Egyptian Pharaoh Nectanebo II of the XXX Dynasty (380-343 BC)

342-333 BC Second Persian conquest of Egypt; Nectanebo II (Dyn. XXXI) flees to Nubia

335-315 BC Reign of Kushite King Nastasen; fought against the Blemmyes and fearful of Persian and Greek attacks. The last Kushite to rule from Napata



GREEKS ENTER NILE VALLEY

332 BCE Siege and Defeat of Tyre and Gaza by Alexander the Great of Macedonia; rout of Persians; Conquest of Egypt and expeditions sent to Nubia; Greek language and culture introduced (an influence to create an alphabetic Meroitic demotic?)

331 BCE Foundation of Alexandria.

323 BCE Death of Alexander the Great

305-284 BCE Ptolemy I Soter, rules from Alexandria, famous library established.

284-247 BCE Reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus.

283 BCE Construction of the famed lighthouse of Pharos in Alexandria.

280-274 BCE Ptolemy II raids Lower Nubia for captives, livestock, and has hunting or trading expeditions for elephants in Meroë. Greek descriptions of “Ethiopia” increase.

274 BCE Ptolemy II wages first war against the Seleucids under Antiochus I.



KUSH MOVES FROM NAPATA TO MEROE

270 BCE Napatan period of Kush comes to an end

264-241 BCE First Punic War between Rome and Carthage.

260 BCE First Kushite King Arakamani-qu (Ergamenes) to be buried at Meroë (Bejrawiya cemetery); Arakakamani had studied the Greek language. Expansion of cattle and elephant hunting at Musawwarat es-Sufra in Butana plain; expansion of iron production.

260-253 BCE Second Syrian war between Ptolemy II and Antiochus II.

253 BC Antiochus II married Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II.

250 BC Translation of Jewish Bible into Greek.

246-222 BC Reign of Ptolemy III Euergetes; has expedition in Nubia led by Eudoxus and he wages war against Seleucus II in Third Syrian War (246-241).

222-205 BC Reign of Ptolemy IV Epiphanes; had good relations with Meroë with whom he traded for elephants.

219-217 BC Fourth Syrian War. Between Ptolemy IV and Antiochus III. Egypt is saved by intervention of Egyptian troops at the battle of Raphia.

221-204 Ptolemy IV builds in the Dodekaschoenos.

218-201 Second Punic War.

204-185 Meroites regain control of Lower Nubia and foment revolts in Upper Egypt.

ca.204-180 BC Reign of Ptolemy V Philometor. Inscription of Rosetta Stone

203-200 BC Philip and Antiochus plot against Egypt.

200 BC Greek geographer Erastosthenes describes Nubia.

196 BC Foundation of library at Pergamun.

181-145 BC Reign of Ptolemy VI, reactivates Nubian gold mines and regains control of the Dodekaschoenos to resume temple construction or addition projects.

170-168 BC War between Ptolemy VI and Antiochus IV of Syria.

166-164 BC Jewish (Maccabean) revolt against Antiochus IV who desecrates the temple at Jerusalem and forces Hellenization. The Jewish celebration of Hanukah commemorates the miracle of this time that made a little oil in a lamp burn for eight days.

164-163 BC Flight of Ptolemy VI from Egypt.

150 BC Kandake Shanakdakheto has first clearly dated inscription in Meroitic cursive.

149-146 BCE Third and last Punic war. Rome sacks Carthage.

147 BCE Macedonia becomes a Roman province.

145 BCE Death of Ptolemy VI. Aristarchus and other intellectuals of the Alexandria library flee with the rise of Ptolemy VIII.

145-130 BC Reign of Ptolemy VIII, Physcom.

142 BC Independence of the Jews.

ca. 100 BC Saqia (eskalay) water wheel introduced. Long conquest inscription recorded on stela of Qore Tanyidamani.

80-51 BC Reign of Ptolemy XII, `the Piper'

73-71 BC Romans finally crush the slave revolt of Spartacus.

63 BC Caesar Augustus born.

55-54 BC Julius Caesar invades Britain.

ca. 50 BC Diodorus terms Nubia as the home of Egyptians, and of civilization itself. Reigns of Kandakes Amanirenas and Amanishakheto.

48 BC Pompey flees to Egypt where he is assassinated. Alexandrian War and Julius Caesar seeks rule of Egypt.



ROMANS ENTER NILE VALLEY

51-30 BC Reign of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XV, initially as co-regents, then she rules alone.

44 BC Assassination of Julius Caesar, Ides (15th) of March.

44-21 BC Period of activity of the geographer Strabo.

42 BC Battle of Philippi. Mark Antony defeats Brutus and Cassius.

37-36 BC Antony in Egypt.

31 BC Octavian is victorious at the battle of Actium. Antony is defeated.

30-28 BC Roman conquest of Egypt under Octavian; suicides of Cleopatra and Antony.

28 BC Cornelius Gallus, Roman prefect, meets Meroitic envoys at Philae temple to have peace negotiations for Lower Nubia.

27 BC-14 AD Reign of Roman Caesar Augustus.

27 BC Roman geographer/historian Strabo visits Aswan.

24 BC Meroites raid Elephantine and Philae at Aswan. Probable time that the statue of Augustus was seized. A bronze head of Augustus found at Meroë as booty from this raid.

23 BC Augustus counterattacks with his forces led by Petronius who seized Qasr Ibrim and likely invaded Nubia to Napata.

ca. 22-21 BC Meroites counterattack at Qasr Ibrim, but are driven back.

21-20 BC Negotiations at Samos Island conclude in peace treaty between Romans and Meroites. Meroitic tribute is suspended and a permanent ambassadorial position is established between Meroë and Roman Egypt. Romans withdraw to Maharraka, which establishes Roman control only for the Dodekaschoenos (Lower Nubia).

0-20 AD Reigns of Meroitic Qore Natakamani and Kandake Amanitore.

ca. 0 BC Southeast Asian crops (rice, yams, sugar cane, eggplant, bananas, and mangos arrive in East Africa; initial dispersal of the “Bantu” population groups



CHRISTIANITY ENTERS NILE VALLEY

33 AD Death of Christ

37-41 Reign of Gaius (Caligula)

37 AD First? Christian enters Nubia (Acts of Apostles)

40 AD Apostle Marc comes to Alexandria
54-68 AD Reign of Nero; sends “explorers” to Nubia in 61 AD; Plans campaign in 64 AD, but not carried out.

64 AD Expansion of Christian persecution

66-73 AD First Jewish rebellion against Romans in Palestine.

67 AD Nero frees Greece from Roman rule. Josephus the historian deserts from the Judean revolt and joins the Romans.

70 AD Writer Pliny describes Nubia; Romans capture Jerusalem with Nubian mercenary cavalry.

73 AD Fall of Masada; Romans complete conquest of Palestine

79 AD Death of Pliny the Elder

100-111 AD Period of activity of Pliny the Younger

100-300 AD Post-Meroitic occupation of Qasr Ibrim

115-117 Jewish revolt

125 AD Emperor Hadrian

132-135 Bar Kochba revolt of the Jews. Dispersal of the Jews.

180 AD Church of Pantaenus founded in Alexandria

199-200 AD Septimius Severus allows a Senate in Alexandria.

247-264 AD Patriarch Dionysius seeks Egyptian converts

ca.260-300 Major conversion of Egyptians to Coptic Christianity. Some spread to Nubia.

268-297 Another period of Blemmyes (Beja) attacks on Nubia.

270-275 Roman emperor Aurelian loots Alexandria to strengthen Roman rule there.

284-304 Reign of Diocletian.

297 Withdrawal of Romans from Lower Nubia to Aswan. Persecution of Christians

300 AD Christian population of Egypt reaches one million. By this time, destruction of the Library at Alexandria and the loss of 650,000 papyrus scrolls of ancient science, math, literature, and religion.

312 AD Emperor Constantine accepts Christianity for the Roman church as a result of his victory at Milvian Bridge in the name of Christianity; Rise of Donatist church in Numidia (endorsed martrydom as a creed of this schismatic group)

313-322 AD First Christian basilica built in Rome

325 AD Council of Nicaea rules over "oneness" of God and Christ.

ca. 340 AD Axumite King Ezana establishes Christianity in Ethiopia; End of Kushitic state with the destruction of Meroë.

350-550 AD X-Group, Ballana (Lower Nubia), and Tanqasi (Upper Nubia) cultural horizons having a new syncretic blend of Pharaonic, Kushitic, and Christian characteristics; No textual records, but huge grave tumuli suggesting small states with clear social stratification. Era of Blemmyes strength; the development of the Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Mukurra, and Alwa, and their respective churches and settlements.

391 AD Christianity becomes state religion for Egypt. ‘Pagan’ temples defaced. Christian Egypt becomes part of the Eastern Byzantine Empire.

436 AD Blemmyes attack Egyptian Nile and even Kharga Oasis

451 AD Effort begins to spread Monophysite Christianity from Egypt, while Egypt is isolated as a result of the Council of Chalcedon (at Constantinople). Effort to resolve differences between Bishop Dioscoros of Alexandria and Pope in Rome. The Council determined that Jesus was a single person with two natures; the Bishop was exiled. Eastern Orthodox insisted that Jesus was of one nature: Monophysite. Schism lasts until today.

452 AD Romans under general Maximinus attack Blemmyes and Nobatia (northern Nubia) to release Roman hostages. Christian missionaries arrive in Nubia.

453 AD Treaty of Philae guarantees right to worship Isis.

476 AD End of Roman Empire in the West

ca. 500 AD Blemmyes still worship Isis at Philae.

515 AD Romans subsidize Blemmye and Nobatian chiefs in exchange for peace.

524 AD Byzantium and Axumite alliance. Blemmyes and Nobatian mercenaries in Axumite attacks on Yemen.

527-565 AD Justinian rules the Eastern Roman of Byzantium. He seeks to reconquer Italy and North Africa

ca.537 AD Nubian King Silko drives out Blemmyes from Nobatia and implies at Kalabsha temple that he is the first Christian king of Nubia. The Isis cult at Philae suppressed by Justinian who officially closes it to ‘pagan’ worship.

543-569 AD First Monophysite Christian kingdoms in Nubia; Missionary Julian given permission by Empress Theodora in Constantinople to evangelize among Nubians.

543 AD Faras established as capital of Christian Nobatia.

ca. 560 Missionary Longinus at Nobatia and Alwa.

ca.569 AD Dongola established as capital of Mukurra after its conversion to Christianity.

579-80 AD Longinus converts Alwa to Monophysite Christianity. Soba is the established capital.



ISLAM ENTERS EGYPT

632 AD Death of the Prophet Mohammad.

636 AD Arab conquest of Syria.

639-640 AD Arab Muslim conquest of Egypt led by Amr ibn al ‘As for Khalifa ‘Omar. This begins the first Muslim contacts with Lower Nubians who are forced to pay tribute in slaves and livestock and promise no aggression against Egypt.

641-2 AD Islamic armies of ‘Amr ibn al`As reach the plain north of Dongola but fail to capture it.

646 Egyptians attack Nubia.

652 AD A "baqt" treaty established between Nubia and Egypt under Abdallah ibn Sa'ad ibn Abi Sahr. Nubia would provide 360 slaves each year and promise no attacks; Egypt would provide 1300 "kanyr" of wine. Old Dongola is captured for a period; conflicts noted between Makuria and Nobatia

661-750 AD Umayyad Dynasty in Egypt. Some Nubians serve as mercenaries in the Islamic armies.

697-707 AD Merger of Nobatia and Mukurra under King Merkurius

720 AD A "baqt" is recorded between Egyptians and Beja

740's AD Cyriacus, King of Dongola lays siege to Umayyad capital at Fustat (Cairo).

750-870 AD Abbasid dynasty in Egypt.

758 AD Abbasids complain of no "baqt" payments and Blemmyes attacks on Upper Egypt.

819-822 AD Dongola king and Beja refuse to pay "baqt" tribute and they mount attacks on Egypt

835 AD George I (816-920), crowned King of Dongola

836 AD George I travels to Baghdad and Cairo

868-884 Amr Ahmed ibn Tulun rules Egypt; large numbers of Nubians in Tulunid army.

920 AD Reign of Dongola King Zakaria begins

950 AD Some Muslims reported at Soba

951,956,962 More Nubian raids into Upper Egypt

969-1171 AD Fatimid rule in Egypt; attack on Nubia by al-Umari

969 AD King George II reigns and attacks Egypt

ca. 1000 AD Nilotic cattle pastoralists expand into southern Sudan.

ca. 1050 Up to 50,000 Nubians serve in Fatimid army

1171-1250 AD Ayyubid Dynasty in Egypt

1127 AD Saladin (Ayyubids) forces Nubians to withdraw to Upper Egypt; George IV is Nubian King.

1140's AD Christian kingdom of Dotawo (Daw) noted in Nubia

1163 AD Crusaders attack Ayyubids and seek alliance with Nubian Christians.

1172 Nubian-Crusader alliance against Ayyubids; clashes in Cairo and Delta towns; Turanshah attacks Nubia

ca. 1200 Rise of the Daju dynasty in Darfur. Northward movement of Dinka, and Nuer populations into Bahr al-Ghazal and Upper Nile

1204 Nubian and Crusader leaders meet in Constantinople

1235 Last priest sent to Nubia from Alexandria

1250-1382 Bahri Mamluk Dynasty in Egypt



ISLAM PENETRATES NUBIA

1260-1277 Forces of Mamluke Sultan Al-Zahir Baybars attack Nubia

1264 Nubians again pay "baqt" tribute, now to Mamlukes

1268 AD Dongola King Dawud pays "baqt" to Mamlukes

1275 AD King Dawud raids Aswan

1275-1365 Period of warfare between Mamlukes and Nubians

1276 AD Mamluke Egyptians sack Dongola; forced conversion to Islam; King Dawud captured

1289 AD Last Mamluke military campaign against Dongola.

1317 AD Defeat of the last Christian king in Nubia and the first Muslim king Abdullah Barshambu on the throne in Dongola; "baqt" re-established; first mosque is built at Dongola

1372 AD Bishop of Faras consecrated by Patriarch in Alexandria

1382-1517 AD Circassian (Burji) Mamluke Dynasty in Egypt

1400's Probable time of the replacement of the Daju by the Tunjur Dynasty in Darfur. Luo migrations from the southern Sudan led to creation of Shilluk groups.

1453 AD Fall of Roman Empire of the East.



ISLAM REACHES THE CENTRAL SUDAN: Rise of Funj and Fur Sultanates

1504 AD The fall of Soba, capital of the last Christian kingdom of Alwa; the beginning of the Islamic Funj Sultanate at Sennar.



See: Historical Dictionary of the Sudan (3rd Edition) for subsequent Islamic chronology to the present.

Forthcoming in Early 2002 by Richard Lobban, Robert Kramer and Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Scarecrow Press